Wednesday, July 10, 2013

Literature Review [IanKang]

Our Selected Title:
  • Investigation on effects of various antibiotics on probiotics(Lactobacilius)
Our Research Question:

    • Do the antibiotics we use affect the 'good' bacteria as much as the "bad" bacteria?
    Our immune system is usually enough to destroy harmful bacteria, as we have white blood cells that attack them before they multiply. Nevertheless there are instances where it is all too much for our bodies, and they need help which is where antibiotics come in. This is where our research comes in. Firstly, for our research project to begin, we had to figure our and conclude upon which antibiotics and medicines we were going to use during the process. These are some of the various antibiotics and how they work:

    • Penicillin is one of the most effective, safe, cheap and used antibiotic in our modern world. Penicillin is often categorized into 2 parts. Penicillin V and Penicillin G. Penicillin V is more acid stable as compared to its counterpart which allows it to be given orally. Penicillin G however is given parenterally which means bypassing the stomach and intestines which is often administered through injection or implantation. This therefore enables Penicillin G to be administered in higher concentrations resulting in an increase in antibacterial activities. Penicillin works by penetrating and damaging various bacterias cell walls known as 'peptidoglycan synthesis' .
    • Tetracycline is also used commonly. Tetracycline's are a type of broad spectrum antibiotics which are commonly used for treatments in the areas of the urinary tracts and intestines. Mostly they are used to counter act 'Escherichia coli' or e-coli for short. It works by penetrating the bacteria cell through small gaps in the cell membrane which also prevents it from entering human cells. Then it binds to a part of the ribosomes which is what creates proteins in the cell. This binding makes it impossible for the cell to which keeps the bacteria from growing. As a result, tetracycline is known as a bacteriostatic (Stops bacteria replication) drug as opposed to a bacteriocidal (Kills the bacteria) one.
    Though I did not cover all the antibiotics in the world, those are the most common. However, this antibiotics kill both bad bacteria and even the good bacteria, namely probiotics. To compensate for this loss, numerous probiotic drinks like Yakult and Vitagen have been created/discovered. After researching, the top 5 most consumed beverages are Coke, Diet Coke, Pepsi, Mountain Dew and Dr. Pepper respectively. Following this, people usually drink a soda or just an ordinary drink following the consumption of a probiotic drink. Pertaining to this issue, we decided to test a few drinks to see the effects of these presumably normal drinks on the probiotics gained through the probiotic drinks mainly whether they would adapt and grow in the given environment or have a loss in numbers.


    Adam Cloe (2011, August 4) 'How Tetracycline Works in the Body' , Retrieved 5th July, 2013 from

    John Sicher (2013, March 25), Retrieved 27th August, 2013 from

    Associated Press (2011, March 17) ,Retrieved 27th August, 2013 from

    Doug Kaufmann (2003, June 18), Retrieved 27th August, 2013 from

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